Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nullam porttitor augue a turpis porttitor maximus. Nulla luctus elementum felis, sit amet condimentum lectus rutrum eget.



Metacognition – Learning how to learn makes learning

 new language learning easier, more efficient and more rewarding.


      Speaking a language is the fastest skill that the human brain can apply. We all possess the fluency of PhD academics in our native language. We all apply our aural language with ease and flow. Learning a new language is one of the most challenging tasks that adults and older children can undertake because they need to learn a new basic skill. There are no miracle methods of learning them.

      New languages are one of the most challenging subjects teach. Tutors often expect learners to memorise phrases like ‘parrots’, through drilling them, repeatedly practising them like musical scales. This offers learners with an initial sense of tangible communicative progress, but it will not provide them with secure avenues that develop into ever-increasing longer-term learning success.

      Hurd and Murphy of the Open University (2006) contended that:


      “Often as learners we set off with unrealistic assumptions, some of which may be fostered by the advertising employed by some course providers of language learners, along the lines of 'Learn a language in three weeks!”


There are no simple miracle ways of learning a new language. If what is promised sounds too good, then it is.


     All languages are more complicated than we appreciate. There is a whole range of irregularities in the English language that do not conform to rules, which we do not notice because we are so fluent in applying them. Learners need to bring thousands of words into fluency to successfully develop even a basic language fluency.

      Research contends that it takes 10,000 hours of practice to develop native-like fluency in a new language. Many learners commence the journey of learning a new language without giving any thought to how they will learn it. Learners, who research how to learn and use appropriate learning strategies, will learn new languages more comfortably and securely in accelerated time scales.

      The problem with the term ‘speak a language’ is that it can be applied to someone who can speak a few phrases in a language or someone who can speak it with native-like fluency. The fact that it is often claimed that certain learners have succeeded in learning a language does not necessarily mean that the methods they use will be the appropriate ones. Research illustrates the progress of adult learning a new language is very diverse, spread out.      

      Although this book will consider the issue of learning Welsh, which is a minority language in Wales, United Kingdom, which will draw upon my experience of learning, improving the authors learing of Welsh as an adult, it will be relevant to all second language learning. It will draw on the research that the author has undertaken into language learning and the cognition of language learning. It will also draw upon his advanced cross-curricula educational understanding.

        Attempting to develop fluency in a new language could be described as being like attempting to climb Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in Scotland, United Kingdom. Learners should have realistic ambitions of what they want to achieve. It is vitally important that learners will be offered secure avenues that will lead towards reaching the summit of the mountain of native-like new language fluency, accepting that very few learners will reach the summit of accurate native-like langue fluency.

    The distinction between classroom learning and self-study is not distinct. They are interrelated.

    Chapter 1, which is titled the “Language Journey”, indicates what is involved in learning a new language. Chapter 2 outlines how learners should attack their learning of a new language and stresses the importance of metacognition in learning a new language learning, learning how to learn. Chapter 3 explains the main principles of learning and outlines the principles of working memory that all second language learners need to understand if they are to learn efficiently and effectively.

    Although language fluency is a word that is frequently used by people, few people understand what it means. Chapter 4 explains what language fluency is and how to develop it.

     Chapter 5 explains what communicative language is and how it can be developed. Chapter 6 considers phonological development and developing a vocabulary and Chapter 7 grammar.

     Chapter 9 discussed how what has been discussed can be applied to learn the Welsh language, which is spoken in Wales. Chapter 10 considers how to learn French. These chapters explain how to learn each language in general terms. Chapter 11 discusses comprehension.


   Chapter 12 provides a plenary that considers the main issues discussed in this book. The Epilogue, Chapter 13, reflectively sums up what has been discussed in this book.

    Key Points are highlighted at the end of each chapter of the book. Key learning advice is also provided at the end of the book.



How to Use this Book


    Learners are advised to periodically revise this book so they will become increasingly familiar with its contents. They need to develop an understanding of what is presetend in the book and to apply it to take control the book of their learning.